Geopolitics is an ever-evolving game, with states and powerful regional entities seeking new and clever ways to advance their national interest. The Middle East and North Africa is no exception. For decades the region has been the site of calculated diplomatic dances, with tensions between nations underwritten by themes ranging from sectarian disagreements to water scarcity to the impact of colonialism.
In recent years, these tensions have made the jump from the realm of battlefields and closed-door meetings into cyberspace. The more powerful players in the region – from Iran to Saudi Arabia to Israel – have invested in their own array of state-sponsored hacking collectives to be used in backing their agendas and advancing their national interests.